Adaptation of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale into Turkish Culture within the Scope of 21st Century Skills



21st century skills, pre-service teacher education, Rasch analysis, self-efficacy, TPACK


The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the 21st-century skills-oriented TPACK scale, developed by Valtonen et al., (2017). The participants of the study selected using the convenient sampling included 339 pre-service teachers who enrolled in the teacher education faculty of a state university located in the western part of Turkey. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed for the construct validity of the scale, and Rasch analysis for its validity and reliability. Rasch person and item reliability coefficients for the TPACK were around .90. Rasch analysis showed that infit and outfit mean values were in the acceptable fit range. In addition, correlations between the factors showed a strong relation in the theoretical model, indicating good construct validity. Also, all dimensions of the scale were significantly related to the teaching self-efficacy of pre-service teachers. Examination pre-service teachers’ responses, it was found that they believed that they had adequate knowledge of content and pedagogic matters, but their knowledge of technology and integrating it with pedagogic and context knowledge were at a satisfactory level. Educational implications and future directions were discussed.

Author Biographies

Muhammet Mustafa Alpaslan 

Associate Professor
Mathematics and Science Education
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University
ORCID: 0000-0003-4222-7468

Özgür Ulubey

Associate Professor
Educational Science
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University
ORCID: 0000-0001-7672-1937

Rıdvan Ata

Associate Professor
Computer Education and Instructional
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University
ORCID: 0000-0002-5008-9328


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How to Cite

Alpaslan , M. M., Ulubey, Özgür, & Ata, R. (2021). Adaptation of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale into Turkish Culture within the Scope of 21st Century Skills. Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 10(1), 77–91. Retrieved from