The Effects of Cover-Copy-Compare Interventions to Enhance Fluency in Mathematics: A Systematic Review Study




Basic math skills, Cover-copy-compare, Math fact fluency, Systematic review


Systematic teaching techniques that offer a wide range of exercises need to be applied to enhance math fluency. Cover-Copy-Compare (CCC) is one of the most effective intervention used to increase the accuracy and fluency rate of students in basic facts. In the literature, it is noted that this intervention which is observed to be applied with different methods enable students to perform fluently and gain numerous math skills. This study aims to analyse studies using CCC for enhancing accuracy and fluency rate according to defined categories. In this study, 22 studies, which meet the inclusion criteria, were reviewed with document analysis. These studies were examined according to methodological and participant features, CCC interventions, effectiveness, maintenance, generalization, and social validity and the results were presented in tables within the scope of this study. The findings obtained through the document analysis were discussed together with limitations of the studies and suggestions for further studies. As a result, it can be said that CCC is a method that can easily be applied to enhance basic fact fluency of all students who are attending the first grade to tenth grade in general education and special education settings, all of whom are between the ages of 7-12. In this regard, when the implementers want to enhance fluency in basic facts, they can benefit from CCC, which is an evidence-based intervention and ensures systematic repetition.


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Author Biographies

Serpil Alptekin, Ondokuz Mayıs University

Nesrin Sönmez, Akdeniz University


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How to Cite

Alptekin, S. ., & Sönmez, N. . (2022). The Effects of Cover-Copy-Compare Interventions to Enhance Fluency in Mathematics: A Systematic Review Study . Psycho-Educational Research Reviews, 11(1), 147–173.